What are the causes of Indonesia’s Urbanisation?
Urbanization in Indonesia increased tremendously following the country’s rapid development in the 1970s. Since then, Indonesia has been facing high urbanization rates driven by rural-urban migration. In 1950, 15% of Indonesia’s population lived in urban areas.
How has the urban explosion affected Indonesia?
High population density can put more pressure on existing infrastructure. From 2000 to 2010, urban population density in Indonesia increased sharply, from 7,400 people per square kilometer to 9,400 people.
What are the 3 causes of urbanization?
Causes of Urbanization
Economic, political, and social issues merge with circumstances of modernization to make people want to migrate from rural to urban areas.
What is the prediction for Indonesia’s level of Urbanisation by 2030?
Urbanisation. The proportion of Indonesians living in urban areas could reach 71 percent in 2030, up from 53 percent today, as an estimated 32 million people move from rural to urban areas.
What are the living conditions in Indonesia?
Indonesia is the world’s most extensive archipelago with more than 17,500 islands. Despite significant economic growth, more than 28 million Indonesians are living below the poverty line, according to World Bank data. These families face much greater hardships in times of economic downturns or natural disasters.
Why have people moved from rural to urban areas in Indonesia?
Migration is motivated by the desire to improve standards of living, and migrants move to places with better economic opportunities2 (Sukamdi and Mujahid 2015). Families that take part in permanent rural-urban migration are motivated by better wages, education and healthcare access in cities (UNICEF 2011).
Why is Jakarta sinking?
Like many coastal cities around the world, Jakarta is dealing with sea-level rise. But Indonesia’s biggest city also has a unique problem: Because of restricted water access in the city, the majority of its residents have to extract groundwater to survive. And it’s causing the city to sink.
What is the social impact of urbanization?
In addition, urbanization has many adverse effects on the structure of society as gigantic concentrations of people compete for limited resources. Rapid housing construction leads to overcrowding and slums, which experience major problems such as poverty, poor sanitation, unemployment and high crime rates.
What are the pros and cons of urbanization?
Top 10 Urbanization Pros & Cons – Summary List
|Urbanization Pros||Urbanization Cons|
|Better job opportunities||Higher levels of pollution|
|Higher salaries in cities||Stress levels increase|
|Life in cities has become more convenient||Less natural recovery space|
|Better access to medical facilities||Cities are quite crowded|